Earth Science Video Series:


         During the scheduled classes, videos will be shown to enhance the topics in the chapters of the book. Two PBS series plus other videos will be utilized.  The PBS video series below may also be viewed in the library. Students are expected to take notes, write two questions from each video, which the student feels were the most important points in the films. Part S for each Module, will be questions from the student’s submitted questions.


The Planet Earth (57 minutes each)

#1 The Living Machine             Student Questions  #1   Notes #1             

#2 The Blue Planet                     Student Questions#2   Notes #2                                      

#3 The Climate Puzzle                                  

#4 Tales from Other Worlds

#5 Gifts from the Sea

#6 The Solar Sea

#7 Fate of the Earth


Earth Revealed
Introductory Geology      

Using a case study approach and employing dramatic video footage, Earth Revealed: Introductory Geology offers a highly effective program for students seeking to understand the unfolding of geologic processes over time and their impact on human life today. Produced with support from the Annenberg/CPB Project, the series is comprised of 26 half-hour telecourse episodes that document evidence of geologic principles at geographically diverse sites -- from the Novarupta Volcano in Alaska to communities ravaged by the Loma Prieta earthquake.

(27 minutes each-two per tape):

#1 Down to Earth -- Down to Earth introduces students to the vast field of geology, using striking visuals to help students begin to appreciate the wonders of Earth:.


               Surface conditions of the planets Venus and Mars are compared with those of Earth, and scenes of Earth's living landscapes lead into a discussion of how unique Earth truly is. Major topics addressed in the series, including plate tectonics, natural resources, seismology, and erosion, are introduced in this program.


#1  Student Questions   #1 Notes


#2 The Restless Planet -- The Restless Planet revisits the beginnings of our solar system and the evolving Earth:

                Early Greek astronomers believed that Earth was the center of the universe. However, this notion changed dramatically over time, especially after the invention of the telescope. This program traces the development of astronomical theory with discussions of the discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton. Unique characteristics of Earth are also discussed


#3 Earth's Interior -- Earth's Interior demonstrates how seismic waves occur and explains the measurement of gravity, heat flow, and earth magnetism, to provide information about Earth's interior


              Oil wells do more than just produce oil — they serve as windows to Earth’s interior. This program introduces the topic of geophysics, exploring methods of studying what lies beneath Earth’s surface. Geophysicists use seismic wave studies, variations in temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, and computer simulations to create models of deep structures.


#4 The Sea Floor -- The Sea Floor examines major sea-floor features: the mid-oceanic ridge, oceanic trenches and fracture zones.


              The mysteries of the ocean floor lie hidden under enormous pressure and total darkness. This program looks at the research submersibles and indirect methods used to study the bottom of the sea, providing a glimpse of volcanic activity, formations such as the continental shelf and mid-ocean ridges, and life forms that thrive at extreme depths.


#4 Student Questions  #4 Notes


#5 The Birth of a Theory -- The Birth of a Theory traces origins of the ideas of continental drift and sea-floor spreading, and their contributions to the plate tectonics theory.


            In the 1960s, earth scientists developed the theory of plate tectonics. This program traces the development of plate tectonics, beginning with the contributions and methods of geologist Alfred Wegener. Sea-floor spreading, continental drift, paleomagnetism, and the primordial supercontinent Pangaea are some of the topics covered.


#6 Plate Dynamics -- Plate Dynamics introduces theory and concepts about the movements of Earth's plates


             This program examines the movement and interaction of tectonic plates, which account for a vast array of geologic formations and phenomena — from California’s San Andreas Fault to the Rift Valley of eastern Africa. The program covers convergent boundaries, subduction, hotspots, and the debate over what drives plate motion.


#7 Mountain Building -- Mountain Building shows how major mountain belts and continents have evolved.


            This program erodes the myth of the mountain as a solid, permanent structure. Animations are used to illustrate the process of orogeny (mountain building) through accretion and erosion, as well as the role of plate tectonics, the rock cycle, and how different types of rock are formed in the course of mountain building.


#8 Earth's Structures -- Earth's Structures illustrates how bedrock responds to tectonic forces originating within Earth


            A visit to the Grand Canyon lays the foundation for this exploration of rock layers and deformation. The program covers sedimentation, major structures, the methods used to examine them, and how petroleum may be trapped inside them. It also looks at tectonic force and the different types of stress involved in the formation of geologic structures.


#9 Earthquakes -- Earthquakes explores the nature and consequences of earthquakes, the factors that cause quakes, their location and characteristics.


            Showing actual footage of earthquakes and their aftermath, this program discusses the forces that fuel these massive events. Faults, waves, and the transfer of energy from the epicenter are explained, and histories of the seismograph and Richter scale are presented. The program also describes devices being developed to study — and eventually predict — earthquakes.                            

#10 Geologic Time -- Geologic Time helps students develop a sense of the vast amounts of time over which logic processes have been at work.


            To illustrate the immensity of geologic time, the entire span of Earth’s existence is compressed down to a year. The timeline of major geologic events is superimposed onto the year for a condensed view of Earth’s evolution. A relationship between this timeline and that of life on Earth is established, with fossils and radiocarbon dating playing a major role in the discovery.


#11 Evolution Through Time -- Evolution Through Time chronicles the development of life on Earth.


            The fossil record reveals much about the diversity and development of species. This program examines the traces left by early plants, animals, and single-celled organisms and follows the progression of life forms over time. Connections are drawn between atmospheric gases, climate change, rock formation, biological functions, and mass extinctions.


#12 Minerals: The Materials of Earth -- Minerals: The Materials of the Earth covers the origins, classifications and uses of minerals.


            Minerals have been indispensable to human civilization. This program looks at the variety of minerals, their atomic and crystalline structures, and their physical properties such as hardness and luster. Petrologists’ methods of sectioning rocks are shown, and gems, precious metals, ore excavation, and the value of silicates are discussed.


#13 Volcanism -- Volcanism explains how volcanoes are formed, and assesses the importance of volcanic activity to Earth's geology and climate.    View This Episode.


            Volcanoes provide clues about what is going on inside Earth. Animations illustrate volcanic processes and how plate boundaries are related to volcanism. The program also surveys the various types of eruptions, craters, cones and vents, lava domes, magma, and volcanic rock. The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens serves as one example.


#14 Intrusive Igneous Rocks -- Intrusive Igneous Rocks unveils the rock-forming processes of magmas that do not reach Earth's surface but solidify underground.


            Most magma does not extrude onto Earth’s surface but cools slowly deep inside Earth. This magma seeps into crevices in existing rock to form intrusive igneous rocks. Experts provide a graphic illustration of this process and explain the types and textures of rocks such as granite, obsidian, and quartz. Once again, plate tectonics is shown to be involved in the process.


#15 Weathering and Soils -- Weathering and Soils demonstrates how minerals and rocks change when subjected to the physical and chemical conditions that exist at Earth's surface.


            The Cleopatra’s Needle obelisk in New York City’s Central Park is severely weathered after only 75 years, whereas the dry climate of Egypt has preserved similar structures in that country for millennia. This program shows how weather, climate, chemicals, temperature, and type of substrate factor into rock and soil erosion. Environmental connections are also considered.


#16 Mass Wasting -- Mass Wasting examines the causes, types and effects of mass wasting.


            Anyone undertaking a building project must understand mass wasting — the downslope movement of earth under the influence of gravity. Various factors in mass wasting, including the rock’s effective strength and pore spaces, are discussed, as are different types of mass wasting such as creep, slump, and landslides. Images of an actual landslide illustrate the phenomenon


#17 Sedimentary Rocks: The Key to Past Environments -- Sedimentary Rocks: The Key

         to Past Environments illustrates the importance of sedimentary rocks in understanding

        Earth's history.


            This program returns to the Grand Canyon: its exposed layers of sedimentary rock allow scientists to peer into the geologic past. The movement of sediment and its deposition are covered, and the processes of lithification, compaction, and cementation that produce sedimentary rocks are explained. Organic components of rock are also discussed


#18 Metamorphic Rocks -- Metamorphic Rocks interprets the causative factors of

        metamorphism and the kinds of rocks produced.


            The weight of a mountain creates enough pressure to recrystallize rock, thus creating metamorphic rocks. This program outlines the recrystallization process and the types of rock it can create — from claystone and slate to schist and garnet-bearing gneiss. The relationship of metamorphic rock to plate tectonics is also covered.


#19 Running Water I: Rivers, Erosion and Deposition -- Running Water I: Rivers, Erosion and Deposition analyzes the role of running water in sculpting Earth's surface, discusses tectonic and hydrologic cycles and how they work together to shape the land.


            Rivers are the most common land feature on Earth and play a vital role in the sculpting of land. This program shows landscapes formed by rivers, the various types of rivers, the basic parts of a river, and how characteristics of rivers — their slope, channel, and discharge — erode and build the surrounding terrain. Aspects of flooding are also discussed.


#20 Running Water II: Landform Evolution -- Running Water II: Landform Evolution recognizes

          the roles human activity can play in intensifying or reducing flood danger, and describes the

         process by which streams and valleys are shaped and landscapes formed.


            The Colorado River is a powerful geologic agent — powerful enough to have carved the Grand Canyon. This program focuses on how such carving takes place over time, looking at erosion and deposition processes as they relate to river characteristics and type of rock. The evolution of rivers is covered, along with efforts to prevent harmful consequences to humans


#21 Groundwater -- Groundwater explains how groundwater is distributed and measures its

        importance to human life.


                        Approximately three-quarters of Earth’s surface is covered by water. But most fresh water comes from underground. Topics of this program include aquifers, rock porosity and permeability, artesian wells, the water table, cave formation, sinkholes, and how groundwater may become contaminated.


#22 Wind, Dust and Deserts -- Wind, Dust and Deserts covers the formation and location of

       deserts and their logic features.


            Land in arid climates is shaped in particular ways. This program shows how deserts are defined by infrequent precipitation and how desertification relates to proximity to the equator, proximity to mountains, and ultimately plate tectonics. Images of landscapes illustrate how wind creates features such as dunes, playas, blow-outs, and even oases.


#23 Glaciers -- Glaciers presents the properties of glaciers and assesses their importance in

       sculpting Earth's surface


            Many of the world’s most beautiful landscapes were made by glaciers. This program shows how, explaining glacial formation, structure, movement, and methods of gouging and accumulating earth. The program provides images of glaciers and glacial landforms such as moraines, and discusses how study of glaciers may help us understand ice ages and the greenhouse effect.


#24 Waves, Beaches and Coasts -- Waves, Beaches and Coasts demonstrates the importance

       of waves in affecting coastal landforms.


            This program shows the dynamic interaction of two geologic agents: rocky landmasses and the energy of the ocean. Aspects of waves — their types, parts, movement, and impact on the shore — are illustrated. The program also covers shoreline characteristics, currents, sea barriers, tides, and how the greenhouse effect could impact sea level and coastal lands.


#25 Living With Earth, Part I -- Living With Earth, Part I expresses human responses to the

      destructive forces of natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and landslides.


            Scenes of San Francisco before the Loma Prieta earthquake introduce this program addressing how humans are learning to cope with earthquakes. Various groups and agencies are studying the San Andreas Fault and the damage caused along its path to better understand how earthquakes ravage the land. Methods of studying earthquakes are reviewed.


#26 Living With Earth, Part II -- Living With Earth, Part II explores the impact of human activity

      on Earth and discusses ways in which people can shape their actions to benefit Earth.


            Since the nineteenth century, humans have turned to the Earth for energy sources to fuel their industry. This program discusses where oil comes from, how it is extracted, and how it is converted into energy. The effects of oil drilling and the burning of fossil fuels are also addressed, and the potential of alternative energy sources is considered.


Oceanography Video Series

The Endless Voyage

From the detailed observations of Lt. Pelham aboard HMS Challanger to the mapping of the oceans by satellites and autonomous undersea vehicles, the study of the ocean is as dynamic and challenging as the sea itself. Now you can introduce students to the fascinating field of oceanography with The Endless Voyage.

The Endless Voyage, successor to the Emmy Award-winning video series, Oceanus, focuses on the marine environment as a unique and important part of life on earth. The 26 half-hour series stands alone but can be combined with the leading textbooks in the field.  Supplementary material includes a student study guide and faculty guide as well as customized online material.

Click HERE to view an entire DVD from this series.
(requires Windows Media Player 9 or higher - Download Windows Media Player 9)

Exploring the Marine Environment

As students discover the richness and diversity of the marine environment, they will visit locations they may never be able to see in a traditional classroom setting. Each video in The Endless Voyage combines contemporary and historical footage with computer graphics and the interviews of leading authorities in a way that is both engaging and informative. Individual case studies in the series focus on polar and tropical extremes, life on the coast, and the practice of oceanography at a research institute.


Topics Covered in The Endless Voyage:

1. An Ocean World
- The profound influence of water and the ocean on planet Earth
- The formation of the solar system and the origin of Earth
- The origins of life on Earth
- The science of oceanography

2. First Steps
- Cartographers, early Greek exploration and Chinese contributions
- The Age of Discovery: From Prince Henry to Magellan
- Voyaging for Science: James Cook, Matthew Maury, Charles Darwin and
   the HMS Beagle, and the Challenger Expedition, including major milestones in
   oceanic exploration, such as the development of the first chronometers and
   breakthroughs in sampling
- The last hundred years: voyages for science in the twentieth century
- The rise of oceanographic institutions

3. Making the Pieces Fit
- Toward a new understanding of Earth: The search for patterns and order in
   the development and location of Earth’s features
- Alfred Wegener and the theory of continental drift
- The work of Benioff and Wadati (orderly pattern of deep Earthquakes)
- The Breakthrough: From seafloor spreading to plate tectonics
- John Tuzo Wilson and the Mechanism of Plate Tectonics: Lithospheric plates
  floating on the heated and expanding asthenosphere (including discussion of
  “the layered Earth,” i.e. the evidence for layering, classification of layers,
  isostatic equilibrium, and sources of internal heat)

4.: World in Motion
- The confirmation of plate tectonics (paleomagnetic orientation; polar wandering)
- Characteristics of plate boundaries (divergent, convergent, and transform)
- Hot Spots: Volcanoes, volcanic islands, atolls, guyots
- Earthquakes

5. Over the Edge
- The topography of ocean floors
- The continental margin: continental shelf, slope, and rise
- Exploring the deep ocean floor: challenges and solutions
- The deep ocean floor: oceanic ridges, hydrothermal vents, abyssal plains,
  seamounts and guyots, deep trenches, island arcs

6. An Ocean’s Memory
- The challenges of studying sediments
- Sediments as historical records: what they tell us, how long they last
- Sediment characteristics and classification (size, source/composition,
  and distribution)
- The economic importance of sediments

7. It’s in the Water
- The importance of water, including its influence on global temperatures
- Physical properties of water: its chemistry, different forms, behavior changes
  as it absorbs or loses heat
- Temperature and water density
- Salinity: Components and sources of the ocean’s salts
- Chemical equilibrium and the principle of constant proportions
- Dissolved Gases
- Acid-Base Balance

8. Beneath the Surface
- Ocean structure: density stratification, water movement, surface conditions
- Refraction, light and sound

9. Going to Extremes
- Locations and interviews illustrate a series of interrelated and dynamic
  oceanographic principles and elements

10. Something in the Air
- Introduction: The impact of Hurricane Mitch
- Atmospheric composition, properties and circulation
- The Coriolis effect
- Wind patterns
- Air masses and cyclones

11. Going with the Flow
- Wind over water
- Surface currents and gyres
- Effects of surface currents on climate, including upwelling and downwelling
  (focusing on El Nino)

12. Deep Connections
- Formation and fate of deep water masses
- Deep ocean storms
- Tracers

13. Surf’s Up
- Introduction: The water mechanics of surfing, introduction to waves
waves (including the distinct parts of ocean waves, classification,
  and water depth)
- Wind waves (including rogue waves and waves approaching shore)
- Wave refraction, diffraction, and reflection
- Internal waves

14. Look Out Below
- Introduction: A look at the destructive impact of a well-documented tsunami
- Storm surges
- Seiches
- Tsunamis and seismic sea waves
- Long-term sea level change

15. Ebb and Flow
- Tides and the forces that generate them
- The equilibrium theory of tides (the role of the sun and moon)
- The dynamic theory of tides
- Tidal currents
- Tidal Power

16. On the Coast
- An introductory look at coasts, with a discussion of the forces that have shaped them
- Large-scale features of coasts (e.g. sand spits, bay mouth bars, barrier islands, sea islands)
- Coasts formed by biological activity (e.g. coral reefs)
- Estuaries, lagoons and wetlands
- Characteristics of U.S. coasts

17. Due West
- Human impact on the southern California coast (the bad and the good),
  shown through:
- Harbor/beach creation and maintenance
- Erosion/landslides
- Water Pollution
- Wetlands preservation

18. Building Blocks
- A working definition of life (including discussion of matter and energy)
- Biogeochemcial cycles
- Evolution and life in the ocean: the theory of evolution by natural selection
- Evolution in the marine environment

19. Water World
- The biological classification (taxonomy) of ocean life
- Physical factors affecting marine life (light, temperature, salinity, gas, nutrients,
  dissolved gases, acid-base balance, and pressure)
- Marine processes that affect ocean life (e.g. diffusion, osmosis, and active
- Classifications of the marine environment (by light, location and environment)

20. Food for Thought
- The capture and flow of energy
- Primary productivity (including how it’s measured, and limiting factors)
- Plankton: types, distribution, production of energy, and effects of seasons
- Larger marine producers (e.g. algae and seaweed)

21. Survivors
- The oxygen revolution and the origin of animals
- Burgess shale, architectural forms
- Survivors: the intertidal zone
- Invertebrate chordates

22. Life Goes On
- Vertebrate evolution
- Gas exchange
- Osmotic considerations
- Feeding and defense
- Fish
- Marine Reptiles (sea turtles, marine crocodiles, sea snakes)
- Marine Birds (tubenoses, pelicans, gulls, penguins)
- Marine Mammals (orders Cetacea, Carnivora, and Sirenia)

23. Living Together
- Introduction: The concept of community (marine and otherwise)
- The influence of physical and biological factors
- Competition, growth rate and carrying capacity, types of distribution, change
- Examples of marine communities (rocky intertidal, seaweed, sand beach and
  cobble beach, salt marshes and estuaries, coral reefs, the open ocean, the
  deep-sea floor, hydrothermal vent)
- Symbiotic interactions and dependencies

24. Treasure Trove
- Physical resources (including petroleum and natural gas, various minerals and
  deposits, and fresh water)
- Marine energy resources (waves and currents, thermal gradient)
- Biological resources (various animals and plants used for food and pharmaceutical
  purposes, fishery management, aquaculture)
- Nonextractive resources
- Classification as renewable or nonrenewable
- Legal issues

25. Dirty Water
- Characteristics of a pollutant
- Types of pollution (examples, costs)
- Habitat destruction
- Global changes
- What can be done?

26. Hands On
- An in-depth look at the science of oceanography at a major research institution